Lentokoneiden visuaalinen tunnistusopas

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#1
Facebook ilmiantoi Usan armeijan oppaan sotilaskoneiden tunnistamiseen.
https://arstechnica.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/vacrmanual.pdf



Gallery: War aircraft through the lens of a US Army training manual
Army says Visual Aircraft Recognition “is a basic skill every Soldier should know.”
https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy...hrough-the-lens-of-a-us-army-training-manual/
DAVID KRAVETS - 5/20/2017, 9:00 PM

A US Army manual updated this month stresses that soldiers should not solely rely on technology when detecting enemy aircraft. Soldiers, the Army said, must possess a skill the manual calls "Visual Aircraft Recognition" (VACR). That's military-speak for being able to determine the type of aircraft one might encounter—all in an effort to distinguish between friend and foe "to decrease any chance of fratricide."

"VACR is a highly perishable skill and must be trained on and evaluated regularly in conjunction with table training. While it is the Soldier on the ground, weapon system in hand that is executing VACR, leaders at all levels must be proficient at this skill," according to the manual, (PDF) Visual Aircraft Recognition.

The 200-page manual—eye candy to military aircraft buffs because of its hundreds of grainy pictures of aircraft—also includes rudimentary graphics and tips on how to detect aircraft with one's eyesight. The battlefield is becoming more and more "automated," the manual notes. But too much is at stake for soldiers to solely rely on technology. They must be capable of identifying aircraft "without the use of automation."

Soldiers must be knowledgeable in the identification of all types of aerial platforms ranging from fixed, tilt, and rotary wing aircraft and unmanned aircraft, in order to protect friendly forces and to prevent fratricide. There have been many arguments through the years that the military does not need VACR, because of the advancement of technology that identifies friendly or enemy aerial platforms. VACR is a basic skill that every Soldier should know. Soldiers cannot blindly depend on automation to do their jobs for them. VACR give Soldiers the necessary skills to perform at the highest level in defending friendly forces from enemy aerial attack.

The manual instructs soldiers that certain aircraft are more likely to be seen in certain "theater of operations" and that "formerly friendly types of aircraft are gradually finding themselves in the hands of non-friendly forces and nations." The training manual noted that the A-4 Skyhawk and Mirage F1 platforms "were in the hands of the Iraqi military during the Persian Gulf War." The manual doesn't expressly say which aircraft is friendly, but it notes the country of origin for each craft.

20 degrees above the horizon
The military says that the optimal vantage point to search for aircraft is 20 degrees above the "apparent horizon." The Army instructs that soldiers can position themselves in a manner that will provide them that vantage point.


A soldier, the military said, should extend "one hand straight in front of him with his fingers fully spread. With his thumb in the air and his little finger pointed at the ground and touching the apparent horizon, the thumb tip will be about 20 degrees above the horizon."


Enlarge

Some tips on how to detect aircraft include squinting the eyes. "Squinting changes the eyes' focal length and will aid in bringing distant aircraft into focus," the Army said.

The Army also cautions soldiers not to stare into the sun and recommends "extending the arm" to block the glare. "Looking into the sun without shielding the eyes may damage them, and even a temporary blinding effect may cause the observer to miss aircraft." Another piece of advice is to keep eyes on aircraft that are discovered.

"Looking away may make it necessary to search for the aircraft again," the manual says. "If it is necessary to look away, the observer should try to remember exactly where the aircraft was and its heading direction from a specific point such as a terrain feature."

Soldiers are also cautioned that "atmospheric conditions" like haze, smoke, fog, and clouds "can make it challenging to see distant objects such as aircraft."

The military also instructs on how to employ binoculars and says they "are most effective when used correctly."

"Keep the eyes on the detected aircraft and carefully raise the binoculars to the eyes to acquire the aircraft. Sudden or jerky movements may cause the observer to lose sight of the aircraft," the training manual says.

Aircraft features
The manual has several graphics on identifying types of wing, fuselage, engine, canopy, and tail fin and flats. Here are some graphics illustrating this:

There's plenty more pictures in the manual, including dozens of rotary wing aircraft of war.

Listing image by US Army
https://arstechnica.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/vacrmanual.pdf

TC 3-01.80 Visual Aircraft Recognition MAY 2017 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited *This publication supersedes TC 3-01.80, dated 29 February 2016. Headquarters Department of the Army This publication is available at the Army Publishing Directorate site (http://www.apd.army.mil), and the Central Army Registry site (https://atiam.train.army.mil/catalog/dashboard)

Figure 2-1. Method of Estimating 20 Degrees ............................................................................... 2-2 Figure 2-2. Vertical Scan and Search method ............................................................................... 2-3 Figure 2-3. Horizontal Scanning .................................................................................................... 2-3 Figure 2-4. Ground Observer Sitting and Offset ............................................................................ 2-4 Figure 2-5. Sector Surveillance ..................................................................................................... 2-5 Figure 2-6. Binoculars (field glasses) Focal Adjustment ............................................................... 2-6 Figure 2-7. How to Hold Binoculars ............................................................................................... 2-7 Figure 3-1. Wing Types .................................................................................................................. 3-2 Figure 3-2. Fixed Wing Positions ................................................................................................... 3-2 Figure 3-3. Variable Geometry ...................................................................................................... 3-3 Figure 3-4. Types of Wing Tapers ................................................................................................. 3-4 Figure 3-5. Wing Shapes ............................................................................................................... 3-5 Figure 3-6. Canards ....................................................................................................................... 3-6 Figure 3-7. Wing Slants ................................................................................................................. 3-7 Figure 3-8. Engines and Locations ................................................................................................ 3-8 Figure 3-9. Propeller Driven Engines ............................................................................................. 3-9 Figure 3-10. Fuselage Types ....................................................................................................... 3-10 Figure 3-11. Canopy Shapes ....................................................................................................... 3-11 Figure 3-12. Number of Tail Fins ................................................................................................. 3-12 Figure 3-13. Tail Fins ................................................................................................................... 3-13 Figure 3-14. Tail Flats .................................................................................................................. 3-14 Figure 3-15. Location of Tail Flats ............................................................................................... 3-15 Figure 3-16. Rotary Wing and Tail Rotor Mounting Locations ..................................................... 3-16 Figure 3-17. Rear Rotor Mounting ............................................................................................... 3-16 Figure 4-1. Paired Comparison ...................................................................................................... 4-2 Figure 4-2. Aircraft Teaching Technique ....................................................................................... 4-4 Figure A-1. WEFT Description Features ........................................................................................A-1 Figure A-2. A-10C Thunderbolt II ...................................................................................................A-3 Figure A-3. A-37 Dragon Fly (Cessna) ..........................................................................................A-4 Figure A-4. Alpha Jet .....................................................................................................................A-5 Figure A-5. AMX ………………………………………………………………………………………….A-6 Figure A-6. AV-8B Harrier II ...........................................................................................................A-7 Figure A-7. Embracer A-29 Super Tucano ....................................................................................A-8 Figure A-8. F-5 Freedom Fighter/Tiger II/T-38 Talon ....................................................................A-9 Figure A-9. F-7P Airguard ............................................................................................................A-10 Figure A-10. F-16 Fighting Falcon ...............................................................................................A-11 Figure A-11. F/A-18 Hornet..........................................................................................................A-12 Figure A-12. F-35 Lightning II ......................................................................................................A-13 Figure A-13. Hawk .......................................................................................................................A-14 Figure A-14. J-10 (Jian-10/Annihilator-10)...................................................................................A-15 Contents May 2017 TC 3-01.80 iii Figure A-15. JF-17 Thunder .........................................................................................................A-16 Figure A-16. Jaguar ......................................................................................................................A-17 Figure A-17. F-21 KFIR ................................................................................................................A-18 Figure A-18. L-39 Albatross .........................................................................................................A-19 Figure A-19. Fouga CM-170 Magister ..........................................................................................A-20 Figure A-20. MB-339AN ...............................................................................................................A-21 Figure A-21. MiG-17 Fresco .........................................................................................................A-22 Figure A-22. MiG-21 Fishbed .......................................................................................................A-23 Figure A-23. MiG-27 Flogger ........................................................................................................A-24 Figure A-24. MiG-29 Fulcrum .......................................................................................................A-25 Figure A-25. Mirage III/5 ...............................................................................................................A-26 Figure A-26. Mirage F1 ................................................................................................................A-27 Figure A-27. Q-5 Fantan/A-5 Nanchang ......................................................................................A-28 Figure A-28. J-22 ORAO ..............................................................................................................A-29 Figure A-29. SF-260W .................................................................................................................A-30 Figure A-30. Su-17, 20, 22 Fitter ..................................................................................................A-31 Figure A-31. Su-24 Fencer ...........................................................................................................A-32 Figure A-32. Su-25/28 Frogfoot ....................................................................................................A-33 Figure A-33. Tornado IDS ............................................................................................................A-34 Figure B-1. WEFT description for Air Superiority and Interceptor Aircraft .....................................B-1 Figure B-2. Typhoon .......................................................................................................................B-3 Figure B-3. F-14 Tomcat ................................................................................................................B-4 Figure B-4. F-15 Eagle ...................................................................................................................B-5 Figure B-5. F-22 Raptor .................................................................................................................B-6 Figure B-6. JAS-39 Gripen .............................................................................................................B-7 Figure B-7. MiG-19 Farmer ............................................................................................................B-8 Figure B-8. MiG-23 Flogger ............................................................................................................B-9 Figure B-9. MiG-25 Foxbat ...........................................................................................................B-10 Figure B-10. MiG-31 Foxhound ....................................................................................................B-11 Figure B-11. Mirage 2000.............................................................................................................B-12 Figure B-12. Rafale ......................................................................................................................B-13 Figure B-13. Su-27 Flanker ..........................................................................................................B-14 Figure C-1. WEFT description for Bomber Aircraft ....................................................................... C-1 Figure C-2. B-1B Lancer ............................................................................................................... C-2 Figure C-3. B-2 Spirit ..................................................................................................................... C-3 Figure C-4. B-52 Stratofortress ..................................................................................................... C-4 Figure C-5. IL-28 Beagle ............................................................................................................... C-5 Figure C-6. TU-22M/TU–26 Backfire............................................................................................. C-6 Figure C-7. TU-95 Bear ................................................................................................................. C-7 Figure C-8. Tu-160 Blackjack ........................................................................................................ C-8 Figure D-1. WEFT description for Cargo and Transport ............................................................... D-1 Figure D-2. AN-12 Cub .................................................................................................................. D-3 Contents iv TC 3-01.82 May 2017 Figure D-3. AN-24 Coke, AN-26 Curl ............................................................................................D-4 Figure D-4. AN-32 Cline .................................................................................................................D-5 Figure D-5. AN-72 Coaler ..............................................................................................................D-6 Figure D-6. AN-124 Condor ...........................................................................................................D-7 Figure D-7. C-212 Aviocar .............................................................................................................D-8 Figure D-8. C-8A Buffalo ................................................................................................................D-9 Figure D-9. C-5 Galaxy ................................................................................................................D-10 Figure D-10. C-17A Globemaster III ............................................................................................D-11 Figure D-11. C-130 Hercules/C-130J Super Hercules ................................................................D-12 Figure D-12. C-160 Transall ........................................................................................................D-13 Figure D-13. G-222 Aeritalia ........................................................................................................D-14 Figure D-14. IL-76 Candid ...........................................................................................................D-15 Figure E-1. WEFT description for Utility Aircraft ............................................................................E-1 Figure E-2. AN-2 Colt .....................................................................................................................E-2 Figure E-3. C-12 Huron/B200 ........................................................................................................E-3 Figure E-4. C-23 Sherpa ................................................................................................................E-4 Figure E-5. King Air ........................................................................................................................E-5 Figure E-6. O-2 Skymaster ............................................................................................................E-6 Figure E-7. DO 128-2 Skyservant ..................................................................................................E-7 Figure E-8. PC-7. ...........................................................................................................................E-8 Figure E-9. MV-22 Osprey .............................................................................................................E-9 Figure F-1. WEFT description for Unmanned Aircraft ................................................................... F-1 Figure F-2. BTT-3 Banshee ........................................................................................................... F-3 Figure F-3. Brevel .......................................................................................................................... F-4 Figure F-4. Crecerelle .................................................................................................................... F-5 Figure F-5. D-4 NPU ...................................................................................................................... F-6 Figure F-6. Model 324 Scarab ....................................................................................................... F-7 Figure F-7. Model 410 .................................................................................................................... F-8 Figure F-8. Mirach 26 ..................................................................................................................... F-9 Figure F-9. Mirach 100 Meteor .................................................................................................... F-10 Figure F-10. MQ-5B Hunter ......................................................................................................... F-11 Figure F-11. MQ-8 Fire Scout ...................................................................................................... F-12 Figure F-12. RQ-2 Pioneer .......................................................................................................... F-13 Figure F-13. MQ-1 Predator......................................................................................................... F-14 Figure F-14. RQ-4B Global Hawk ................................................................................................ F-15 Figure F-15. RQ-7B Shadow ....................................................................................................... F-16 Figure F-16. RQ-170 Sentinel ...................................................................................................... F-17 Figure F-17. RQ-11B Raven ........................................................................................................ F-18 Figure F-18. MQ-9 Reaper........................................................................................................... F-19 Figure F-19. ScanEagle ............................................................................................................... F-20 Figure F-20. Scout ....................................................................................................................... F-21 Figure F-21. Shmel-1 Yak-061 .................................................................................................... F-22 Contents May 2017 TC 3-01.80 v Figure G-1. WEFT description for Rotary Wing ............................................................................ G-1 Figure G-2. AH-1F Cobra .............................................................................................................. G-3 Figure G-3. AH-64 Apache ............................................................................................................ G-4 Figure G-4. AH-6/MH-6 Little Bird ................................................................................................. G-5 Figure G-5. SA-316/SA-319 Alouette III ........................................................................................ G-6 Figure G-6. AS-332 Super Puma/AS-532 Cougar ........................................................................ G-7 Figure G-7. BO-105 ....................................................................................................................... G-8 Figure G-8. CH-47 Chinook ........................................................................................................... G-9 Figure G-9. CH-53 Sea Stallion ................................................................................................... G-10 Figure G-10. SA365 Dauphin 2 ................................................................................................... G-11 Figure G-11. MD 500 Defender................................................................................................... G-12 Figure G-12. SA-342M Gazelle ................................................................................................... G-13 Figure G-13. Harbin Z-9 Lynx/AS 365 Super Lynx ..................................................................... G-14 Figure G-14. Hirundo A109 ......................................................................................................... G-15 Figure G-15. Ka-27 Helix ............................................................................................................. G-16 Figure G-16. Ka-50 Hokum A/Ka-52 Hokum B ........................................................................... G-17 Figure G-17. WG-13 LYNX ......................................................................................................... G-18 Figure G-18. Agusta A129 Mangusta .......................................................................................... G-19 Figure G-19. Mi-2-Hoplite ............................................................................................................ G-20 Figure G-20. Mi-17/Mi-8 Hip ........................................................................................................ G-21 Figure G-21. Mi-24/25/35 Hind .................................................................................................... G-22 Figure G-22. Mi-26 Halo .............................................................................................................. G-23 Figure G-23. Mi-28 Havoc ........................................................................................................... G-24 Figure G-24. NH90 ...................................................................................................................... G-25 Figure G-25. OH-6A Cayuse ....................................................................................................... G-26 Figure G-26. OH-58D Kiowa ....................................................................................................... G-27 Figure G-27. PAH-2 Tiger/EC-665 Tiger ..................................................................................... G-28 Figure G-28. SA-330 Puma ......................................................................................................... G-29 Figure G-29. SH-3 Sea King ....................................................................................................... G-30 Figure G-30. SA-321 Super Frelon ............................................................................................. G-31 Figure G-31. UH-60A Black Hawk............................................................................................... G-32 Figure G-32. UH-72 Lakota ......................................................................................................... G-33 Tables Table 4-1. 2016 Aircraft list ............................................................................................................4-5 Table A-1. List of Ground Attack, CAS and Fighter Bomber Aircraft .............................................A-2 Table B-1. List of Air Superiority and Interceptor Aircraft ...............................................................B-2 Table C-1. List of Bomber Aircraft ................................................................................................. C-1 Table D-1. List of Cargo and Transport Aircraft ............................................................................ D-2 Table E-1. List of Utility Aircrafts ....................................................................................................E-1 Table F-1. List of Unmanned Aircraft .............................................................................................F-2
 
#3
Vielä 2000-luvun alussa tuollaiset lentokoneiden visuaaliset havaitsemiset ja tunnistamiset olivat naurun aihe maailmalla ja osittain myös kotimaassa. Asenne oli hyvin pitkälle se, että tuollainen lentokoneiden havainnointi kuului lähinnä museoon. Ja suomalaisia vähän säälittiinkin, kun ulkkarit saivat kuulla, että meillä on vielä aisti-ilmavalvontaverkko. Iso-Britannian Royl Observer Corps oli luopunut ilmavalvonnasta jo 50-luvulla ja uudeksi tehtäväksi tuli ydinräjähdysten havainnointi ja säteilytasojen mittaaminen. Kylmän sodan loppuminen aiheutti organisaation lakkauttamisen lähes välittömästi. Tanskan kodinturvajoukoissa aisti-ilmavalvontaa harjoiteltiin 90-luvun puoliväliin saakka. Suomi jäi viimeiseksi mohikaaniksi ja eräille ihmetteleville ulkomaalaisille upseereille jouduttiin kertomaan, että vaikka ilmavalvontaryhmä ei näkisi maalia pimeyden tai pilvisyyden takia, niin kuulohavaintojakin pystyy tekemään.

2000-luvun alussa kun Afganistanin ja Irakin massaturismit oli saatu polkaistua käyntiin, Yhdysvaltojen armeija vähensi tai lopetti kokonaan ilmatorjunnan monista taisteluyksiköistä. Perustelut oli niinkin vankat kuin, että "yksikköä vastaan ei ole tehty yhtään ilmahyökkäystä vuoden 1944 jälkeen".

Nyt on edessä jälleen vanhan opettelu uudelleen kun mahdollisella vastustajalla onkin tykistöä, panssareita ja ilmavoimat käytettävissään.