The J-10 adopts a “tailless delta-canard” aerodynamic layout, which was originally developed for the cancelled J-9 fighter. The aircraft has the horizontal control surfaces moved forward to become a canard in front of the wing. When the aircraft pitches up, instead of forcing the tail down decreasing overall lift, the canard lifts the nose, increasing the overall lift. Because the canard is picking up the fresh air stream instead of the wake behind the main wing, the aircraft can achieve better control authority with a smaller-size control surface, thus resulting in less drag and less weight.
The aircraft employs an adjustable, chin-mounted air intake that supplies air to the single Lyulka-Saturn AL-31FN afterburning turbofan jet engine. The upper portion of the air intake is incorporated with an intake ramp designed to generate a rearward leaning oblique shock wave to aid the inlet compression process. The ramp sits at an acute angle to deflect the intake air stream from the longitudinal direction. This design created a gap between the air intake and the forward fuselage, and requires six small beams to enhance the structure for high-speed flight. This air intake design was reportedly replaced by a diffuser supersonic inlet (DSI) on the latest J-10B variant.
The tailless delta-canard configuration is inherently aerodynamically unstable, which provides a high level of agility, particularly at supersonic speeds. However, this requires a sophisticated computerised control system, or “fly-by-wire” (FBW), to provide artificial stabilisation and gust elevation to give good control characteristics throughout the flight envelope. The J-10 uses a digital quadruplex (four-channel FBW system developed by the 611 Institute. The software for the FBW system was developed by the 611 Institute using ADA language.
The pilot sits in the cockpit located above the air intake and in front of the canard. The two-piece bubble canopy gives the pilot great vision at all directions, a vital feature during air-to-air combat. The onboard digital flight control computer ‘flies’ the aircraft for the pilot, providing automatic flight coordination and keeping the aircraft from entering potentially dangerous situations such as unintentional slops or skids. This therefore frees the pilot to concentrate on his intended tasks during the combat.
The two-seater J-10S fighter-trainer is identical to the single-seater variant in performance and avionic configuration, but has its forward fuselage stretched to accommodate a second pilot seat. Two pilots sit in tandem in the two-seat cockpit with one single large bubble canopy. An enlarged dorsal spine accommodates additional avionic for the second pilot. The aircraft can be used for pilot training or as a standard fighter.
Crew: One (J-10); Two (J-10S)
Powerplant: 1X Russian Salyut AL-31FN turbofan
Thrust (dry): 76.2kN (7,770kg, 17,130 lb)
Thrust (afterburning): 122.55kN (12,500kg, 27,557 lb)
In-flight refuelling: Yes
Weapon: 23mm single-barrel cannon
External Hardpoints: 11 (five under the fuselage centerline; six under the wings)
Based on the MiG-29M OTV, MiG-35 (Nato reporting name Fulcrum F), is equipped with advanced avionic suite comprising of a modern glass cockpit designed with three 6x8 inch flat-panel LCDs and full HOTAS controls, digital map, helmet-mounted sight. The latest Zhuk-AE active electronically scanning array (AESA) radar is mounted on this aircraft. This radar was developed with modular approach, enabling upgrading existing Zhuk ME/MSE radars, into the phased array equipped MFE/MSFE standard, deployed in MiG-29/Su-27 platforms.
MiG-35 uses an integral aerial refuelling probe, which is required as 'must have' for the Indian MRCA program.The MiG-35 is fitted with western standard Mil-1553 bus and advanced Russian made weaponry. Reliability and serviceability have been improved, reducing operating cost and improving serviceability by 2.5 times (compared to older MiG-29s). MiG-35 is The MiG-35 has a 'glass cockpit' based on Russian avionics or western systems (mostly French).equipped with an optronic target tracker, identical to the system used on the Su-30MKI. For precision air-to-ground attack missions, the aircraft can be equipped with a conformal electro-optical targeting module, installed under the right air intake. The aircraft is equipped with radar warning, electro-optical missile launch warning and laser warning sensors, and integral active self protection (jamming, chaff and flare) as part of the integral self-defense system. The aircraft has four additional hardpoints and can haul an external payload in excess of six tons.
Phazotron Zhuk AE AESA radar is installed in the production version of MiG-35Most of the systems introduced in the MiG-35 can be applied to older MiG-29s through upgrading programs.
The aircraft is powered by two RD-33 MK engines digitally controlled smokeless engines, producing 9000kgf of thrust each. This type is an improved and uprated version of the standard RD33 engine. The engine was developed to power the carrier based MiG-29K and modernized version MiG-29M/M2. The prototype demonstrated in Bangalore did not have thrust vector exhausts, but, according to the manufacturer, these can be installed in production aircraft
The cockpit (available in single- or twin-seat configurations) is situated forward in the fuselage design, aft of the radar-housing nose cone assembly. The pilot(s) sit (s) under a two-piece canopy offering up excellent views from within the cockpit. The canopy consists of the forward fixed windscreen and the main component which, itself, is hinged at the rear. The contoured fuselage sports small side-mounted strakes near the cockpit and all-moving canard foreplanes. The strakes serve to move stagnant air generated by the canard foreplanes. As the Typhoon is an inherently unstable platform (her center of gravity is located aft of center itself), the canards play a crucial role in various aerodynamic aspects of the aircrafts flight envelope including pitch control. Canard foreplanes allow for improved turning and can improved total drag/lift during landing and take-off while providing greater agility at speed. Their forward position in the design also allows them to be of reduced drag as opposed to rear-mounted tail planes found in traditional fighter designs.
The main wing assemblies are of a delta wing design featuring extensive sweep along the leading edge and little to no sweep along the straight trailing edge. Construction includes carbon-fiber composite rib and spars with metal only used along the weapon hardpoints. Up to 70% of the Typhoon's construction revolves around use of carbon-fiber composites, titanium and aluminum-lithium. Control surfaces are fitted to both the leading and trailing edges. Control is aided by trailing edge flaperons which accomplish the combined tasks of conventional flaps, elevators and ailerons and are further aided by the canard foreplanes. An airbrake is fitted to the ventral side while leading-edge flaps help in landing. The delta wing design approach also allows for multiple external underwing and underfuselage hardpoints and number thirteen in the Typhoon. Jammer pods are ingeniously contained at the clipped wingtips so no ordnance is used at those areas. The Typhoon makes use of basic stealth design features including implementation of a small radar cross section. Some areas of the aircraft are coated over in special materials to absorb incoming radar waves. The radar system itself diffuses its own signals to an extent.
Intakes are mounted directly beneath the fuselage and are split at their center, allowing each duct to aspirate their respective engine and further break up incoming radar signals from reaching the engine. Each intake opening is rectangular in shape and slightly angled down towards the fuselage centerline. The intake sports a hinged lower "lip" and the center splitter plate ensures proper, uninterrupted airflow to each engine. Its low fuselage placement is also deemed optimal for this particular aircraft design layout. The empennage is dominated by a single, large-area vertical tail fin (similar to the one as found on the Panavia Tornado but of a smaller overall size) mounted between the two engine compartments. The engines exhaust through conventional nozzle rings at the rear and base of the vertical tail fin though there has always been talk of replacing these with vectoring nozzles in the future. There is a small noticeable intake at the trailing edge base of the fin. As a delta wing design, the Typhoon makes no use of traditional horizontal tail planes and instead uses the canard foreplanes and wing-mounted surfaces for basic flight functions (aided by computers).
Her undercarriage is conventional, sporting two single-wheeled main landing gear legs and a single-wheeled nose landing gear leg. The main legs retract inwards towards centerline under each wingroot while the nose leg retracts backwards under the split intake system. Each leg is fitted with carbon-carbon brakes that are cooled by a fan system and furthermore controlled by an automated computer function. The undercarriage as a whole is designed to withstand a good deal of stress, allowing them to stay exposed at constant Angle-of-Attack (AOA) during landings. This affords the Typhoon a relatively short landing run of just 2,300 feet.
The JAS 39 Gripen is a fourth-generation fighter manufactured by Swedish company Saab. Designed as a swing-role type capable of performing multiple missions, the Gripen entered service with the Swedish air force in 1995, replacing its Saab Drakens and Viggens.
Powered by a single Volvo Aero RM12 afterburning turbofan based on the General Electric F404, the Gripen is capable of speeds of up to Mach 2 and has a maximum range of 2,800km (1,510nm).
Weapon options include a 27mm Mauser internal cannon, Raytheon AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missiles and Raytheon Paveway II laser-guided bombs. The aircraft is also being used to support the development of MBDA's Meteor beyond visual-range air-to-air missile.
To date 236 Gripens have been ordered, with the Swedish air force to receive the vast majority, at 204 aircraft. Export customers are the Czech Republic (14), Hungary (14), South Africa (26) and Thailand (12), with some of their aircraft being remanufactured Swedish JAS 39s. The UK’s Empire Test Pilots' School also uses the Gripen for undergraduate training under an arrangement with Saab.
An upgraded, two-seat variant dubbed the Gripen Demo first flew in April 2008, with this to de-risk technologies for a planned Gripen NG (Next Generation) production aircraft. The demonstrator is powered by a GE F414G which will enable the type to sustain a supercruise performance of M1.1 without using its afterburner.
Compared to the D-model aircraft, the Gripen Demo has an increased maximum take-off weight of 16,000kg (35,200lb), 40% more internal fuel capacity and offers a range of up to 4,070km.
Crew: 1 (2 for JAS 39B/D)
Powerplant: 1× Volvo Aero RM12 afterburning turbofan
# 1 × 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon 120 rounds
# 6 × Rb.74 (AIM-9) or Rb 98 (IRIS-T)
# 1 × 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon 120 rounds
# 4 × Rb.99 (AIM-120) or MICA
# 4 x Rb.71 (Skyflash) or Meteor
# 4 x Rb.75
# 2 x KEPD.350
# 4 x GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bomb
# 4 x rocket pods 13.5 cm rockets
# 2 x Rbs.15F anti-ship missile
# 2 x Bk.90 cluster bomb
# 8 x Mark 82 bombs
# 1 x ALQ-TLS ECM pod