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Jos tuo on Aurora, niin miksi sitä ei tuoda julkiseksi? Kenties voimanlähde jota käyttää! Fysiikan lait taitavat mennä uusiksi.
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Eikö mitään muuta sivua olisi missä noi lukisi ? En ihan vaan periaatteesta haluaisi minkää sputnikin sivuilla käydä.


Greatest Leader
The Air Force Research Laboratory, or AFRL, is developing space-based solar power transmission capability using high-efficiency solar cells to collect the sun's energy, convert it to radio frequency, and beam it to earth.

"Energy is a strategic enabler and potential vulnerability for our nation and our Department of Defense" said U.S. Air Force Col. Eric Felt, director of AFRL's Space Vehicles Directorate. "To ensure DoD mission success we must have the energy we need at the right place at the right time."

Providing uninterrupted, assured, and agile power to expeditionary forces operating in unimproved areas such as forward operating bases would provide an advantage to US and allied forces.

"The Space Solar Power Incremental Demonstrations and Research (SSPIDR) Project is a very interesting concept that will enable us to capture solar energy in space and precisely beam it to where it is needed," Felt said. "SSPIDR is part of AFRL's 'big idea pipeline' to ensure we continue to develop game-changing technologies for our Air Force, DoD, nation, and world."

AFRL researchers are focused on developing and demonstrating some of the key technologies necessary to integrate into a conceptual space-based power beaming system. Northrop Grumman will partner with AFRL and has been awarded a contract valued at more than $100 million to develop and deliver the critical hardware elements to support space-based experiments into this leading-edge technology.


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Suomi ja Yhdysvallat ovat tänään allekirjoittaneet avaruustilannekuvayhteistyötä koskevan yhteisymmärryspöytäkirjan. Suomea edusti ilmavoimien komentaja, kenraalimajuri Pasi Jokinen ja Yhdysvaltoja kontra-amiraali Marcus Hitchcock Yhdysvaltain avaruusesikunnasta (USSPACECOM).

Yhteisymmärryspöytäkirjan perusteella on tarkoitus vaihtaa Suomen ja Yhdysvaltain kesken julkista avaruustilannetietoa.

– Tilannetietoisuuden ja -ymmärryksen on ulotuttava kaikkiin taistelutilan ulottuvuuksiin, sillä tapahtumat maalla, merellä, ilmassa, avaruudessa sekä kyber- ja informaatioavaruudessa vaikuttavat toisiinsa, Jokinen toteaa.

– Avaruustilannekuvan merkitystä korostaa se, että avaruudessa toimii tänä päivänä jatkuvasti kasvava joukko sekä valtiollisia että kaupallisia toimijoita.

Kontra-amiraali Hitchcock on samoilla linjoilla.

– Avaruustilannetietoisuus on erittäin tärkeä kansallisen turvallisuuden kannalta niin Yhdysvalloissa kuin Suomessa. Avaruudessa on niin kaupallista, tieteellistä kuin sotilaallista toimintaa ja sitä pitää pystyä valvomaan organisoidusti.

– Pöytäkirja vahvistaa avaruusoperaatioiden avoimuutta, ennakoitavuutta ja läpinäkyvyyttä, Hitchcock korostaa.

Yhdysvallat on globaalisti keskeinen toimija avaruustilannetietoisuudessa ja sillä on vastaavanlaisia sopimuksia useiden muiden eurooppalaisten maiden kanssa. Yhdysvaltain avaruusesikunta aloitti toimintansa uudelleen tänä vuonna. Suomen puolustusvoimissa avaruustilakuva on ilmavoimien vastuulla. Ilmavoimat kehittää Suomen avaruustilannekuvakykyä yhdessä siviilihallinnon avaruustoimijoiden kanssa. Keskeisiä kansallisia yhteistyökumppaneita ovat Ilmatieteen laitos ja Maanmittauslaitoksen Paikkatietokeskus.

– Ilmavoimat tuottaa operaattorin roolissa avaruustilannekuvan, joka integroidaan osaksi puolustusvoimien yhteistä tilannekuvaa. Avaruustilannekuvaan perustuvaa tietoa avaruusesineiden sijainneista ja liikkeistä voidaan hyödyntää esimerkiksi puolustusvoimien oman toiminnan suunnittelussa ja suojaamisessa, kenraalimajuri Jokinen kertoo.


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The United States has been refusing to launch negotiations on the initiative of Russia and China on preventing an arms race in space, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said.

"The United States remains practically the only side that refuses to launch discussions on the initiative introduced by Russia and China at the Conference on Disarmament and Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space," Lavrov said in an interview with the Rossiya 24 TV channel late on Friday.

Moscow and Beijing have offered to draft a binding international document that would outline guarantees that no weapons would be placed in orbit around the Earth and would include measures to prevent an arms race in space.

Lavrov noted that for nearly 20 years, Russia has been working on the creation of a verification mechanism for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) but the United States had been blocking the creation of such mechanism.

Instead, the United States had been promoting the idea that the UN Secretariat could monitor the implementation of the convention, Lavrov continued.

This case is another example where the United States tries to promote its own interests and rules to replace a universal international legal mechanism, according to the Foreign Minister.

The BTWC was signed in 1972 and was the first international disarmament treaty. However, the lack of the implementation monitoring mechanism is believed to limit its effectiveness.


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The Space Force could be added as the sixth branch of the US military, potentially coordinating Washington's capabilities in space and conducting warfare from there. However, this can only happen if the US Congress agrees to add it to the final version of the annual defence bill by the end of the year.

The future of Donald Trump's proposed Space Force remains uncertain, as fierce bicameral negotiations continue in the US Congress over the National Defence Authorisation Act (NDAA), which is the primary legislation for funding US military projects, The Hill reported.

The Space Force could become the sixth branch of the US military and be established under the Department of the Air Force. Its purpose would be to coordinate US military forces in space and oversee fighting capabilities in a bid to potentially counter threats from anti-satellite missiles.

While both the House and the Senate have acknowledged the necessity of Trump's long-proposed branch to be included in the final version of the bill, they have not agreed on the structure and name of the new service. The main problem, however, remains over negotiations between House Democrats and Senate Republicans on the construction of Trump's border wall and funding plans, which could potentially obstruct any agreement on the addition of a space branch of the armed forces to the bill, according to some officials.

Republican Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman James Inhofe earlier told The Hill that the Democrats were using the proposed branch as "leverage" in negotiations on other hotly debated issues.
"Space Force is the thing that they think the president wants the most, therefore, they can say, use that as leverage", Inhofe said on Wednesday. "But it hasn't worked".

Nevertheless, Several Republican and Democratic aides told the Associated Press on condition of anonymity that, in an apparent step closer to the creation of the Space Force, Donald Trump could agree to provide 12 weeks of paid parental leave to federal workers - which is currently unpaid - in exchange for support for the inclusion of the Space Force in the defence bill. The proposed parental leave amendment has been advocated for by many Democrats for a long time, including House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.

In the meantime, Inhofe introduced what is called a "skinny" version of the NDAA that Congress can rely on as a backup if lawmakers are not able to arrive at a compromise, which would include basic military funding necessities, but would not include funding for a space-focused military branch.

Some Democratic House representatives, such as House Armed Services Committee Chairman Adam Smith, are opposed to the "skinny" version of the bill as well, because of the things it potentially leaves out.

This has been echoed by Director of the Aerospace Security Project at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies Todd Harrison, who told the outlet US News that it would be quite "unfortunate if national security space issues become a partisan fight" between parties.

If the Space Force is included in the final version of the bill in the next few weeks and it is signed by the US president, the branch could become operational by 2023, according to officials.


Greatest Leader
The United States is getting a new space force along with $738 billion in military spending under an agreement backed by lawmakers on Tuesday that fulfils a priority of President Donald Trump.

The 2020 spending in the National Defense Authorization Act is a jump from the $716 billion authorized last year, and will go to pay for a wide range of military activities.

It will also create a space-based sixth branch of the military -- a priority of Trump's -- after the army, air force, navy, Marine Corps and coast guard.

The bill has won the approval of Democratic and Republican lawmakers in both the House and Senate armed services committees, making its passage in Congress likely.

Democrats agreed to approve the measure in exchange for bipartisan agreement on paid paternal leave for federal employees, following months of negotiations.

Under the deal, 12 weeks of paid leave would be extended to 2.1 million civilian federal employees who give birth or adopt, and would mark a rare example of consensus in the highly polarized political environment.


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The Pentagon has recently been actively pursuing the development and deployment of new equipment in space, including designed to detect early launches of ballistic intercontinental missiles from the territory of potential adversaries.

Barbara Barrett, chief of the US Air Force, has come up with an unusual strategy to find support among not just US lawmakers, but also among the public for Trump's new branch of the country's armed forces, the Space Force, by declassifying a number of secret programs that the Pentagon is currently running in space.

She opined that this could clarify to the broader public what the US is doing in this domain and why exactly it needs a separate force for operations in space, as well as funding. But Barrett cautioned against taking things too far and revealing too much out of a desire to end the practice of keeping such programmes "overwhelmingly classified".

"Declassifying some of what is currently held in secure vaults would be a good idea. You would have to be careful about what we declassify, but there is much more classified than what needs to be", Barrett said.

The Air Force chief's idea was supported by Mike Rogers, a member of one of the target groups for the suggested action - House Republicans, who opined that the move to declassify not only US, but also known Russian and Chinese activities in space, would help make congressmen more "supportive" of the military's needs.

"It's not going to happen until they understand the threat and the dependence we have. And I don't think that can happen until we see significant declassification of what we're doing in space and what China and Russia are doing, and how space is in their day-to-day lives", Rogers said.

Neither Rogers nor Barrett has clarified how much will be released to the public, nor did they elaborate on when it might happen, but the Air Force chief pledged to focus on the matter of increasing openness in the near future.

The Air Force is not the first to mull taking a new approach towards classified data, as former Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence Susan Gordon has also pushed for declassifying more information in a bid to combat Russia and China's alleged attempts to target US citizens for data collection purposes.

Trump announced the creation of the Space Force in 2018, but the proposed new military branch has not officially received funding yet. The National Defence Authorisation Act for fiscal year 2020 contains funding for it, but it is yet to be approved by the Senate and the president.

According to the defence bill, the Space Force will be established within the Air Force and its chief will report to the secretary of the Air Force, but will still be a separate member in the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

"It's not going to happen until they understand the threat and the dependence we have. And I don't think that can happen until we see significant declassification of what we're doing in space and what China and Russia are doing, and how space is in their day-to-day lives", Rogers said.


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Kwast claims China is already building a “Navy in space” complete with the space-based equivalents of "battleships and destroyers" which are “able to maneuver and kill and communicate with dominance, and we [the United States] are not.” Kwast’s speech centers on the thesis that the United States needs a Space Force in order to counter Chinese advances and win the competition over the economy of the future and, as an extension, who sets the values of the future:
"Space is the Navy for the 21st century economy, a networked economy that will dominate any linear terrestrial economy in the four engines of growth and dominance that change world power: transportation, information, energy, and manufacturing. [...] Whoever gets to the new market sets the values for that market. And we could either have the market with the values of our Constitution [...] or we could have the values we see manifest in China."
As we’ve reported previously, there have been hints of radical new technologies under development by the military and, just as in Kwast’s speech, Chinese advances have been cited as the reason why these technologies are needed. China has been rapidly expanding its presence in space in recent years, placing a lander on the far side of the moon in late 2018 in what some say was a push to scout natural resources with which to develop a permanent lunar manufacturing center. China has also been developing “mothership” aircraft from which to rapidly and unpredictably launch spaceplanes and other payloads into space. The country has also launched several eyebrow-raising satellites in recent years which some analysts claim could be used in anti-satellite warfare. Beyond all this, they have been investing heavily in a traditional space program that includes many facets of manned and unmanned space technologies that rivals, and in some ways, exceeds our own.

Kwast argues that the scientists, engineers, historians, and strategists of today have been pushing the U.S. Congress to more heavily and more rapidly fund the Space Force and associated technologies, but there is still some pushback and confusion as to why these are presently needed. Kwast ultimately makes the case that the United States must be able to bring kinetic power, non-kinetic power, and informational power to the battlefield cheaper and faster than its adversaries in order to ensure strategic advantage in space.

Around the 12:00 mark in the speech, Kwast makes the somewhat bizarre claim that the U.S. currently possesses revolutionary technologies that could render current aerospace capabilities obsolete:
"The technology is on the engineering benches today. But most Americans and most members of Congress have not had time to really look deeply at what is going on here. But I’ve had the benefit of 33 years of studying and becoming friends with these scientists. This technology can be built today with technology that is not developmental to deliver any human being from any place on planet Earth to any other place in less than an hour."
Kwast’s comment is only one of several curious comments made by military leadership lately and they do seem to claim that we could be on the precipice of a great leap in transportation technology. We also don't know exactly where he is coming from on all this as it is not necessarily the direct wheelhouse of someone who was running the Air Force's training portfolio, although it does have overlaps. Whether or not the revolutionary aerospace technologies Kwast mentions have actually been developed is one thing, but Kwast’s lecture, his recent op-eds, and his supporters make it clear that there are many within the U.S. military and analyst community who have felt that there is a great need to boost investment in American space technologies and the U.S. military’s presence in space. That vision is certainly taking root across the Defense Department.

Is all this setting the stage for a new space race that will benefit mankind by furthering scientific and technological development, or is it ushering in the conditions for the first great space war? Only time will tell, but according to Kwast, the technologies needed to win that war may be more science fact than fiction.


Greatest Leader
Russia on Wednesday lifted the veil on its tightly guarded space-based missile warning system, ahead of a vote in the US Congress on President Donald Trump's plan to create a new space force.

The new system, named Kupol or dome, is designed to detect launches of ballistic missiles and track them to their landing site, according to documents presented by the general staff to military attaches and visible in photographs on the defence ministry website.

As part of the programme, three warning satellites called Tundra have already been put into orbit, starting from 2015.

Kupol's exact configuration is not known but it has positioned itself as equivalent to the US surveillance system SBIRS.

General Valery Gerasimov, the chief of the general staff of the Russian armed forces, said the latest satellites had "significantly increased Russia's capacity to ensure detection of launches and intercontinental ballistic missiles.

He spoke at a defence ministry briefing a day after US Congress approved a $738 billion (664 billion euro) spending bill to create the new space force, which is under the control of the air force.
Russia has had space forces since 2015 which are also integrated with its air force and largely tasked with anti-missile defence.

At the same time, it has long accused the United States of wanting to militarise space, which remains one of the last spheres of cooperation between the rival powers.

In 2018, the US, which in turn suspects Russia of seeking to develop space weapons, said it was alarmed at the "very abnormal behaviour" of a Russian satellite. Moscow dismissed what it called "unfounded allegations".

Russia boasts for its part of developing "invincible" weapons that surpass existing systems, including the hypersonic Avangard missiles, Sarmat intercontinental missiles and Burevestnik cruise missiles, which it claims have an "unlimited range".


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Allies are in the early stages of collaboration with the newly created U.S. Space Force, which has hosted its first "five eyes" level briefing and authorized its first collaborative task order, the Air Force said Friday.

According to an announcement by the U.S. Air Force, Group Captain Darren Whiteley, a Royal Air Force officer from Britain and the deputy director of the Combined Space Operations Center, recently signed the first combined tasking order for Space Force command units.

"Allied partnerships are critical to defending our assets at home and in the space domain," Whiteley said. "The threat is expanding and international collaboration is essential to strengthen deterrence against hostile actors. Through these partnerships we are able to expand the depth and multiply the effects we can have to those evolving threats."

The task order is the first by a coalition partner under Operation Olympic Defender, a multinational effort intended to optimize space operations and share information between allies.
"Five eyes" is a military term referring to intelligence sharing and collaboration between Australia, Canada, Britain, the United States and New Zealand.

New Zealand has recently attended its first weekly products brief, where coalition space strategy is synchronized and where master plans and tasking orders are communicated and approved.

CFSCC was established at Vandenberg at an October ceremony.

On Saturday President Donald Trump signed a $738 defense bill authorizing the creation of establishing the U.S. Space Force as the sixth branch of the military. That bill follows a February directive from the President to create the Force, but it also requires that existing military personnel be reassigned to create the force.


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The 14th U.S. Air Force command was officially redesignated as Space Operations Command, the Air Force has announced.
The new mission, known as SPOC, supports the U.S. Space Force in protecting U.S. interests, deterring aggression and conducting operations in space, an Air Force statement on Monday said. Its headquarters remains at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.
The change was formally approved by Air Force Secretary Barbara Barrett as effective on Dec. 20, the same day that President Donald Trump signed the 2020 National Defense Authorization Act. Signing the bill established the U.S. Space Force as the sixth branch of the U.S. armed forces.
SPOC's operations include space domain awareness, space electronic warfare, satellite communications, missile warning, nuclear detonation detection, environmental monitoring, military intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance, navigation warfare, command and control, and positioning, navigation and timing.
Maj. Gen. John E. Shaw, former 14th Air Force commander, was named commander of SPOC.
Vandenberg AFB hosted its first "five eyes" level briefing last week and authorized its first collaborative task order with a representative of allied countries. Group Capt. Darren Whiteley of the a Royal Air Force signed the first combined tasking order for Space Force command units.
"Five eyes" is a military term referring to intelligence sharing and collaboration between Australia, Canada, Britain, the United States and New Zealand.


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Vice President Mike Pence formally swore in Gen. John "Jay" Raymond as the new Chief of Space Operations Tuesday at the White House, a U.S. official told VOA.

Raymond assumed the duties of the first head of the Space Force on December 20, 2019, when U.S. President Donald Trump signed into law the National Defense Authorization Act that officially launched the new force.

"The Space Force will help us deter aggression and control the ultimate high ground," Trump said at the NDAA signing last month.

Officials say the Space Force will organize, train and equip military personnel who primarily focus on space operations.

Raymond was named commander of the new United States Space Command upon its creation in August of last year. That command, which sought to better organize the U.S. military's space assets and operations, is being phased out as personnel are transferred to the Space Force.

The military's role in space has come under scrutiny because the U.S. is increasingly reliant on orbiting satellites that are difficult to protect. Satellites provide communications, navigation, intelligence and other services vital to the military and the national economy.

The Space Force is the newest military service branch and will fall under the Department of the Air Force, much as the U.S. Marine Corps is a separate service within the Department of the Navy.

Officials have said the Space Force will initially include thousands of Air Force service members and civilian personnel currently serving within the Air Force's Space Command.

Personnel from the Army and Navy's space programs also are eventually expected to be integrated into the new service branch.