https://spectrum.ieee.org/aerospace/space-flight/three-steps-to-a-moon-baseIn 1968, NASA astronaut Jim Lovell gazed out of a porthole from lunar orbit and remarked on the “vast loneliness” of the moon. It may not be lonely place for much longer. Today, a new rush of enthusiasm for lunar exploration has swept up government space agencies, commercial space companies funded by billionaires, and startups that want in on the action. Here’s the tech they’re building that may enable humanity’s return to the moon, and the building of the first permanent moon base.
Suurella todennäköisyydellä lennot lykkääntyy tämän räjähdyksen takia.
On Saturday, April 20, 2019 at 18:13 UTC, SpaceX conducted a series of static fire engine tests of the Crew Dragon In-Flight Abort test vehicle on a test stand at SpaceX’s Landing Zone 1, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.www.spacex.com
Ehkä miehitetyt lennot, mutta ei kuitenkaan vuosikaupalla, sillä en usko että Musk aikoo istua käsiensä päällä kauan aikaa tämän asian kanssa. Testit pitää suorittaa menestyksellä loppuun ja sitten bisnes rullaa. On parempi että testaavat ja saavat asiat hiottua kuntoon, niin että sitä ei sitten testata kun hätä on päällä.Suurella todennäköisyydellä lennot lykkääntyy tämän räjähdyksen takia.
SPS:n (AJ10-137) polttoaine saatiin asettumaan tankeissa oikein ohjausmoottorien (RCS) pienellä poltolla. Hyvinkin vähäinen kiihdytys riittää pakottamaan nestemäisen osan tankkien "pohjalle," putkiin ja pumppuun asti. RCS:n polttoainetankeissa taas kuplien muodostuminen estettiin eristämällä polttoaine paineistavasta heliumista tefloniseen muovirakkoon. Englanninkielinen termi boldatulle prosessille on "ullage."Antaa jotain ajatuksia jo sille miten uudelleenkäynnistettävä komentomoduulin moottori toimi avaruuden painottomassa tyhjiössä, paitsi ettei ollut gravity-assistiä eli miten perhanassa se ajoaine saatiin sinne turbopumppuun? Oliko joku kaasupatruuna jolla nostettiin painetta tankkien sisällä jotenkin? Ehkä jonkun verkko-/ kalvopussin sisällä?
Fate has ordained that the men who went to the moon to explore in peace will stay on the moon to rest in peace.
These brave men, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, know that there is no hope for their recovery. But they also know that there is hope for mankind in their sacrifice.
These two men are laying down their lives in mankind’s most noble goal: the search for truth and understanding.
They will be mourned by their families and friends; they will be mourned by their nation; they will be mourned by the people of the world; they will be mourned by a Mother Earth that dared send two of her sons into the unknown.
In their exploration, they stirred the people of the world to feel as one; in their sacrifice, they bind more tightly the brotherhood of man.
In ancient days, men looked at stars and saw their heroes in the constellations. In modern times, we do much the same, but our heroes are epic men of flesh and blood.
Others will follow, and surely find their way home. Man’s search will not be denied. But these men were the first, and they will remain the foremost in our hearts.
For every human being who looks up at the moon in the nights to come will know that there is some corner of another world that is forever mankind.
WILLIAM SAFIRE / NIXON-ADMINISTRASJONENS ARKIVER
http://www.marsdaily.com/reports/Europe_prepares_for_Mars_courier_999.htmlThe first round-trip to the Red Planet will see a European orbiter bringing martian samples back to Earth. ESA is opening the door to industry to build the spacecraft that will deliver the precious rocks, dust and gas from Mars - the key to understanding whether life ever existed on our closest planetary neighbour.
This 'take-away' service is called the Earth Return Orbiter, and will be ESA's major contribution to the Mars Sample Return campaign. The ESA Orbiter will carry NASA's Capture and Containment and Return System, which will rely on the ESA-led spacecraft for transit to and from Mars.
Three launches from Earth and one from Mars - the first ever from another planet -, two rovers and an autonomous capture in Mars orbit are all part of an ambitious series of missions that ESA is embarking on together with NASA.
The campaign aims to bring at least 500 grams of samples back from the Jezero crater that once held a lake and contains an ancient preserved river delta. The rocks in the area preserve information about Mars' diverse geology.
NASA's Mars 2020 rover that is slated for launch in July 2020 will scientifically select the best samples to store in tubes and deposit them onto the martian surface for later retrieval.
ESA is also studying concepts for a small 'fetch' rover to scurry quickly across the martian surface to locate and recover the stored samples.
It would then carry them back to a football-sized canister that would be launched with a NASA Mars Ascent System - a small rocket.
The Earth Return Orbiter will capture the canister in orbit and transfer it safely to Earth, a return trip that will take about 13 months.
"We will have the responsibility of finding, capturing and transporting these precious martian treasures home for careful analysis in state-of-the-art labs on our planet," explains Sanjay Vijendran, ESA's Mars Sample Return campaign coordinator. "It's an interplanetary treasure hunt!"
SpaceX CEO Elon Musk has his mind set on going to Mars. To do so will require a vast new spacecraft, powered by a new rocket engine unlike anything that’s been seen before. Step forward Raptor, the future of SpaceX’s endeavours.
Raptor is designed to power the new reusable vehicles SpaceX’s is building, the Starship spacecraft and the Super Heavy rocket. Combined, these vast machines are designed to take up to 100 people into space, possibly to the Moon and Mars, with a tentative launch of humans around the Moon planned in 2023. SpaceX tested the first flight-ready version of Raptor in February 2019 and, last week, it flew a Raptor for the first time on a “hop” test of a prototype of Starship, called Starhopper.
The engine has been in development for the better part of a decade, going through a number of iterations. At its core it’s like other engines, burning chemical fuel to produce thrust. But its use of liquid oxygen and methane – something largely unprecedented in the rocket industry – and its innovative design means that it just might be SpaceX’s ace in the hole when it comes to exploring the Solar System.
“There is no other rocket engine capable of producing as much energy out of liquid methane and liquid oxygen as the Raptor engine,” says Tim Dodd, an industry expert who runs the popular Everyday Astronaut YouTube channel. “And making it more reusable with little to no refurbishment is the idea. That’s definitely going to help their business case if they can just fly over and over.”
Itse uskon että meidän on melko pakko käyttää ydin ja fuusio reaktoreita koko aurinkokunnan tutkimisessa. Kemialliset raketit on niin meh niihin verrattuna.A full-flow stage combustion engine refers to how a pump spins a turbine to drive the engine, using what’s called a preburner to get this process going by injecting a small amount of fuel. Normally some of the propellant is expended in a traditional open cycle engine to start this process, but Raptor will use every drop of propellant available, making it one of the most efficient rocket engines ever built.
“Raptor burns that fuel at a high enough pressure that can then steer the fire from preburner back into the combustion chamber and completely burn that propellant with the rest of the propellants,” says space consultant Charlie Garcia from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). “And it does this in a very clever way that only the Russians have done previously… by putting all the propellant in the engine through the preburners.”
The end result is that Raptor has a much higher pressure than Merlin, about three times greater, making it the highest pressure rocket engine in existence and leading to its aforementioned larger thrust than Merlin despite its similar size. In 2016, Musk referred to the “insane pressure” inside the main chamber of the engine, 300 bars, which required the development of a new metal alloy.