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The Air Force is adding two new courses to its National Security Space Institute located at Peterson Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, including one on "space situational awareness, for our partners and allies to learn more about collision avoidance, de-orbits and reentries," Wilson said.

"We will open more of our current advanced courses on national security space to military members of allied countries," she said. "Australia, Canada, and the UK currently attend. We will invite New Zealand, France, Germany, Japan and possibly others to come train with us."

The classes, Space 100 and Global Space Situational Awareness courses, will each have a particular focus. The 100 class, to be a roughly one-to-two week unclassified, introduction and overview of space operations, will spotlight orbital mechanics, launch, satellite operations, and space weather.

The Air Force said this course is not the same as undergraduate space training, or UST, which gives new Air Force officers an introduction into space operations but is taught at a "Top Secret" security clearance level.

Global SSA will be a three-week course that focuses on space surveillance: how space objects move, fall out of orbit and reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Partners will be trained on proper maneuverability and getting out of the way of an oncoming object to avoid collision.

The service will also expand its Space 200 and 300 classes. The 18-day 200 class, already open to the UK, Canada and Australia, will be open as a mid-career course to France, Germany, and Japan and will highlight space systems development and space power as it pertains to national security.

Space 300 will expand to include the "Five Eyes" partners: Australia, Canada, New Zealand,and the U.K., according to the Air Force.

The program is offered as a professional development course that addresses space acquisition and high-end capabilities at operational and strategic levels as it applies to a range of military missions. Students can expect the 15-day class to have a broad range of topics, from unclassified briefings all the way up to the "Top Secret" levels.

NSSI was created in 2004 under Air Force Space Command to provide space training to Air Force space professionals as well as the broader National Security Space community. The NSSI falls under the Air Force Institute of Technology, a component of Air University.

"We will strengthen our alliances and attract new partners, not just by sharing data from monitoring, but by training and working closely with each other in space operations," Wilson said. "Why now? Because we face a more competitive and dangerous international security environment than we have seen in decades.

"Russia and China are developing capabilities to disable our satellites," she said.

For example, according to the "Worldwide Threat Assessment" authored by National Intelligence Director Daniel Coats in February, Russia and China are well on their way to sending weapons capable of jamming or destroying U.S. military and commercial satellites into space, including some that may reach initial operational capability in the next few years.

"We will work with like-minded nations to preserve the ability to freely and safely operate in space," Wilson said. "We will work with our allies to improve operations, enhance deterrence, defend our vital national interests and prevail when called upon."


At the past two editions of the National Space Symposium, Air Force leaders warned about the need to prepare for a coming war in space. Now, it appears the rubber is hitting the road: bureaucratic reorganizations and a recent influx of cash have military leaders figuring out the future makeup of satellites. One theme at this year’s gathering in Colorado Springs of more than 14,000 military and commercial space professionals is the need to move quickly. That’s a common theme everywhere in Pentagon acquisition these days, as is “resiliency.”

At a briefing on Tuesday, I asked Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson what resilience looks like. “It’s not a single characteristic; it’s probably multiple characteristics,” she said, and offered a few thoughts:

  • “Something that’s resilient will probably be less expensive, so that you can replace pieces of it. It will be distributed.”
  • “Resilient would be a system that could take a punch and keep on operating. A resilient set of space systems can manoeuvre or could protect itself in some way. It might be able to hide from certain things or at certain times. It could be restored quickly or reconstituted quickly. It might also be layered.”
  • “Something is resilient if it’s protected in depth and not just a single lock on the door.”

Resilience also plays into the idea advanced by Gen. Dave Goldfein, the Air Force chief of staff, that the military must make it financially prohibitive for an enemy to launch an attack on America’s satellites.

“We have to reverse the cost curve, because right now what we’re defending is far more expensive than the cost of the attack. We gotta flip that,” Goldfein said. “Resilience also means you change the cost curve so that what they have to use to be able to attack a portion of the network is far more expensive than what we are putting up there.”

As the Air Force figures out the mix of the size and types of new satellites, much of the work will likely happen in secret. Asked if she sees more space working becoming classified, Wilson responded, “A lot is there already now.”

One area where the Air Force wants to copy the commercial space industry: automating more of the launch process.

“Historically, when we conducted launches, we have radars and telemetry dishes and optical capabilities and command-destruct capabilities to protect public safety and we would bring in a crew to operate those capabilities and we had individuals on console to blow up a rocket if it when astray to a point where it would jeopardize safety,” Gen. Jay Raymond, the head of Air Force Space Command, said during a speech Tuesday.

Automating parts of the process “will reduce manpower and cost significantly and allow us to go faster and have more opportunities to access space,” Raymond said.

“We have chartered a team that is currently building the future launch and range vision and the goal is to get to all autonomous ranges in the near future,” he said. “This will pay significant dividends not just for us, but the entire space industry.”


With space becoming an increasingly congested and contested domain, the Commonwealth of Australia has chosen Lockheed Martin's iSpace - intelligent Space - system to help with their Space Situational Awareness capability needs.

Lockheed Martin is providing the Commonwealth of Australia with an iSpace Space Situational Awareness training and demonstration mission system. iSpace collects data from a worldwide network of government, commercial, and scientific community space surveillance sensors to provide space situational awareness and space command and control.

Deployed within the Australian Space Operations Center, the iSpace demonstrator will provide key analytical tools to support derivation of future requirements for critical national defense missions. iSpace will fuse space surveillance data, including data from Australian sensors, into a recognized space picture that provides comprehensive knowledge of the space environment.

The system's advanced analytics and fusion capabilities enable proactive assessment and management of space events such as collisions, maneuvers, break-ups, launches, overflight, re-entry, and co-orbital threats.

"The Commonwealth of Australia is an important ally for the U.S. and we are pleased to support their expanded role within the space situational awareness domain," said Dr. Rob Smith, vice president of C4ISR for Lockheed Martin. "iSpace will be a key component in informing their operating concepts and capability needs."

iSpace can be used by defense, civil, commercial, and international customers to satisfy their sensor data processing, space domain awareness, command and control, or battle management needs. The system's open, scalable architecture and intuitive user display can be rapidly integrated in many environments for modeling and simulation, experimentation or operational use.

Space Superioty, aivan uusi sana. Ei ole tullut eteen edes tieteiskirjallisuudessa.
Chief of Staff of the Air Force Gen. David L. Goldfein emphasized the essential role Airmen have when it comes to space superiority during the 34th Space Symposium April 17, 2018, in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

"Our space specialists must be world-class experts in their domain," said Goldfein. "But, every Airman, beyond the space specialty, must understand the business of space superiority. And, we must also have a working knowledge of ground maneuver and maritime operations if we are to integrate air, space and cyber operations in a truly seamless joint campaign."


The Aerospace Corporation's Center for Space Policy and Strategy (CSPS) released a new policy paper that explores future opportunities in cislunar space-essentially, the space inside the moon's orbit and the orbital area around the moon.

Cislunar Development: What to Build- and Why discusses the possible applications for cislunar space-for example, outposts on the moon, extraterrestrial mining operations, interplanetary waystations-and determines the infrastructure that will be needed to realize those ambitious goals.

Author Dr. James Vedda, senior policy analyst with CSPS, says that the cislunar region remains a largely underdeveloped resource, and any coherent, long-term strategy for space commerce and exploration will need to make better use of it.

"An enduring, multi-purpose space infrastructure means more than just rockets and spacecraft," said Vedda.

"It needs a wide range of capabilities, such as inter-orbital transportation, on-orbit servicing, standardization, fuel storage, energy distribution, communication and navigation services, resource extraction, and materials processing."

Vedda added that visions for cislunar development have been proposed by public and private stakeholders in spacefaring countries, but no widespread consensus on what to build and how to build it has emerged.

"Most of these concepts have focused on small aspects of the overarching design-but to truly realize the enormous potential of cislunar space, infrastructure projects should strive for broad applicability, beyond a single mission or short-term series of missions for a single agency."

Dr. Jamie Morin, executive director for CSPS, echoed those sentiments, noting, "Investment in cislunar development makes sense as a strategy for boosting U.S. space commerce and expanding the human footprint in the solar system. Building an effective space infrastructure will involve a mix of government agencies and private-sector entrepreneurs from around the world, so collaboration between the public and private sectors and across national lines will be key."


Aerojet Rocketdyne, a subsidiary of Aerojet Rocketdyne Holdings, Inc., announced that in collaboration with The Boeing Company and the U.S. Missile Defense Agency, its Divert and Attitude Control System (DACS) Center Manifold for the Missile Defense Agency's Redesigned Kill Vehicle (RKV) successfully completed hot fire altitude testing.

The RKV program is an integral part of the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) element of the Missile Defense Agency's Ballistic Missile Defense System.

The Center Manifold was tested at the White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico, at a simulated altitude outside the Earth's atmosphere. The success of this test validated Aerojet Rocketdyne's unique technology, and marked a major milestone for the RKV DACS leading up to the Critical Design Review for the RKV development program.

Aerojet Rocketdyne is currently on contract with Boeing for RKV development and initial production, with the RKV DACS units being built out of its Los Angeles facility.

"Completion of this Divert and Attitude Control System Center Manifold testing is a significant milestone for our GMD RKV DACS program, and a major step forward to the Critical Design Review for this state-of-the-art propulsion technology," said Mo Khan, Aerojet Rocketdyne's senior vice president, Defense.

"We're extremely proud of our RKV team and our missile defense product lines, and the pinpoint accuracy our systems provide warfighters in defending the United States and its allies," said Aerojet Rocketdyne CEO and President Eileen Drake.

GMD provides Combatant Commanders the capability to engage and destroy intermediate- and intercontinental ballistic missile threats in space to protect the United States. The RKV improves kill vehicle reliability, reduces unit cost, improves maintainability in the field, and improves performance against emerging threats.



The modern understanding of the Pentagon's relationship with unexplained flying phenomena has become remarkably more pointed in the last six months since the Advanced Aviation Threat Identification Program was uncovered. Its disclosure came in between our own exclusive reporting on two very strange and well-documented encounters with strange aircraft operating in U.S. airspace. Now, new documents are coming to light that show the Department of Defense's own spy agency was also interested in subjects that border on science fiction and the even the paranormal, including warp drive, extra-dimensional manipulation, dark energy, and other highly exotic forms of space travel.




The UK must be ready to counter "intensifying threats" emerging in space, the defence secretary has said.

Those threats include the "jamming" of military satellites used by the Army.

Launching the UK's first defence space strategy, Gavin Williamson said that he would boost staff in the sector by a fifth to 600.

He also confirmed that he is considering British participation in an alternative satellite-navigation system to the EU's Galileo programme.

Mr Williamson said that with so much military and civilian technology reliant on satellites - which are potentially vulnerable to attacks - the UK needs to be at the forefront of space technology.

Such technology was "not just a crucial tool for our armed forces but vital to our way of life, whether that be access to our mobile phones, the internet or television," he said.

"It is essential we protect our interests and assets from potential adversaries who seek to cause major disruption and do us harm."

Part of the UK's strategy will see RAF Air Command given a key role in the control of military space operations.

Merten sheriffi

Zealous Ufologist Says Extraterrestrials are Sabotaging Nukes to Stop Apocalypse
Conspiracy theorists have long suspected that the world’s governments are managing secret extraterrestrial projects, and last December’s report on the Pentagon’s black budget study of UFOs fanned the flames of conspiracy.
Conspiracy theorists have long suspected that the world’s governments are managing secret extraterrestrial projects, and last December’s report on the Pentagon’s black budget study of UFOs fanned the flames of conspiracy.
A ufologist, who preferred to remain anonymous, took to the website Alien Revelations to claim that aliens are seeking to stop humans from using nuclear weapons, “because we simply cannot be trusted with such massive power.”
READ MORE: Beware ‘Demonic' Aliens: UFO Probes in US, UK Hampered by Religious Fears
The author recalled former US Air Force Lieutenant Bob Jacobs’ interview on the Larry King show a few years ago when he claimed that his superiors had warned him to remain silent about having seen a UFO at the Vandenberg Air Force Base.

Pentagon Reportedly Admits UFO Encounter With US Navy
His seniors, however, were not as excited about the alleged sighting of an unidentified flying object, saying “this didn’t happen,” but many ufologists say UFO encounters often occur around nuclear bases.
According to another website, Collective-Evolution, a similar incident happened at the Malmstrom Air Force Base.
“This occurred in March of 1967 at a base that was responsible for a large amount of nuclear weapons. Witnesses here saw a red, glowing UFO hovering just outside the front gate. After that happened, all of the nuclear missiles shut down, and went completely dead.”
The ufologist said it wouldn’t be “surprising” if extraterrestrials were trying to prevent the apocalypse by creating obstacles for human nuclear experiments.
“We observed the UFOs were very interested in the nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities. A couple of nuclear weapons that were sent out into space were destroyed by the extraterrestrials. At the very end of the 70s and early 80s, we attempted to put a nuclear weapon on the moon and explode it for scientific measurements. They destroyed the weapon before it got to the moon.”
Despite all theories, NASA has always denied the existence of alien life.
“The only life we know about is on Earth. NASA is always looking for life out there, and when we find it, we will tell you,” Paul Hertz, Astrophysics Division at NASA Headquarters in Washington, stated last year.


The U.S. military is seeking to be more lethal in all domains, including space, Defense Secretary James N. Mattis said yesterday.

In a briefing with reporters in Colorado Springs, Colorado, Mattis said U.S. Northern Command will have to change to meet the challenges of the future, to include space-related security challenges.

"As the threats to North America evolve, we'll have to evolve the command, too," he said. "It will continue to adapt from what it does, incorporating cyber defenses, outer space priorities and, of course, the air-breathing threats that we'll have to stay alert to."

Mattis said changes start with business reforms inside the Pentagon. He noted the Defense Department is currently not adopting best practices from industry.

"We want to make the military more lethal in outer space and cyberspace, at sea, on land, and in the air," Mattis said. The department, he added, also wants to strengthen relations with U.S. partners and allies.

The department needs to examine the changing character of war, to include issues like artificial intelligence, hypersonics and outer space activities, according to Mattis.

"These have all got to be looked at, because as we say in the U.S. Department of Defense, our adversaries get a vote," he said.

Mattis travelled to Colorado for the U.S. Air Force Academy's graduation ceremony yesterday and the change of command today at Northcom and the North American Aerospace Defense Command.

Northcom was established Oct. 1, 2002, to provide command and control of DoD homeland defense efforts and coordinate defense support of civil authorities.


Donald Trump said on Monday he would direct the Pentagon to create a “space force” as a new branch of the US military to shore up American dominance in space.

Trump claimed that the plan will ensure that America, which plans a return to the moon and a mission to Mars, stays ahead of China and Russia in any new space race. But it is likely to raise fears over the militarisation of space and prompted a slew of Twitter parodies featuring Star Trek and Star Wars.

“Very importantly, I’m hereby directing the Department of Defense and Pentagon to immediately begin the process necessary to establish a space force as the sixth branch of the armed forces,” the president said at the White House.

“That’s a big statement. We are going to have the air force and we are going to have the space force – separate but equal. It is going to be something so important.”

Trump asked Gen Joseph Dunford, chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, to carry out the assignment. Dunford replied: “We got it.”

The president added: “Let’s go get it, general. But that’s the importance that we give it. We’re going to have the space force.”


When I was a Corporate Manager of Fairchild Industries from 1974 through 1977, I met the late Dr. Wernher Von Braun. We first met in early 1974. At that time, Von Braun was dying of cancer but he assured me that he would live a few more years to tell me about the game that was being played- that game being the effort to weaponize space, to control the Earth from space and space itself. Von Braun had a history of working with weapons systems. He escaped from Germany to come to this country and became a Vice President of Fairchild Industries when I had met him. Von Braun’s purpose during the last years of his life, his dying years, was to educate the public and decision-makers about why space-based weapons are dumb, dangerous, destabilizing, too costly, unnecessary, unworkable, and an undesirable idea, and about the alternatives that are available.

As practically a deathbed speech, he educated me about those concepts and who the players were in this game. He gave me the responsibility, since he was dying, of continuing this effort to prevent the weaponization of outer space. When Wernher Von Braun was dying of cancer, he asked me to be his spokesperson, to appear on occasions when he was too ill to speak. I did this.
What was most interesting to me was a repetitive sentence that he said to me over and over again during the approximately four years that I had the opportunity to work with him. He said the strategy that was being used to educate the public and decision makers was to use scare tactics… That was how we identify an enemy.

The strategy that Wernher Von Braun taught me was that first the Russians are going to be considered to be the enemy. In fact, in 1974, they were the enemy, the identified enemy. We were told that they had “killer satellites”. We were told that they were coming to get us and control us – that they were “Commies.”

Then terrorists would be identified, and that was soon to follow. We heard a lot about terrorism. Then we were going to identify third-world country “crazies.” We now call them Nations of Concern. But he said that would be the third enemy against whom we would build space-based weapons.

The next enemy was asteroids. Now, at this point he kind of chuckled the first time he said it. Asteroids- against asteroids we are going to build space-based weapons.

And the funniest one of all was what he called aliens, extraterrestrials. That would be the final scare. And over and over and over during the four years that I knew him and was giving speeches for him, he would bring up that last card. “And remember Carol, the last card is the alien card. We are going to have to build space-based weapons against aliens and all of it is a lie.”


On Monday, President Trump went off script and announced that he would remove responsibilities for the space domain from the US Air Force and create a sixth branch of the armed forces he calls the Space Force. "We are going to have the Air Force, and we are going to have the Space Force, separate but equal," Trump said Monday, at the outset of a meeting of the National Space Council. "It is going to be something. So important."

The idea isn't new. For several years, some members of the US Congress have talked about creating a new discipline in the Air Force dubbed the "Space Corps" to focus exclusively on developing "warfighter" capabilities in space. The Air Force and some allies in Congress have pushed back against this idea, and Secretary of Defense James Mattis prefers to keep management of space activities as they are within the Air Force.


The US government has published a report detailing how to prepare for the danger of impacts from asteroids that stray too close to Earth in the next ten years.

Classified as near-earth objects (NEOs), these are a group of bodies in the Solar System that are less than 1.3 astronomical units – the distance between the Earth and Sun – from the Sun as they orbit it.

The latest statistics show that NASA has detected 18,310 near-earth asteroids (NEAs) and 123 near-earth comets (NEOs) so far. Most are tiny, measuring a few metres across, and would probably burn up and disintegrate in Earth’s atmosphere, making them harmless. Some are several kilometres wide, however, and could cause real damage and even wipe out life on Earth if they came crashing down.

An asteroid measuring 20 metres in size rained down near Chelyabinsk, Russia on 15 February 2013 and carried about 20 to 30 times more energy than what was released by the first atomic bombs. The shock wave shattered windows, damaged buildings, and injured over a thousand people.

NASA reckons there are more than 300,000 objects bigger than 40 metres that could be hazardous to Earth. It is estimated that 25,000 NEAs are at least 140 metres in size. Despite the large sizes of NEOs, they’re difficult to detect more than a few days in advance of a possible impact.

NASA has set up a five broad goals:

  • enhance NEO detection, tracking, and characterization capabilities
  • improve NEO modeling prediction, and information integration
  • develop technologies for NEO deflection and disruption missions
  • increase international cooperation on NEO preparation, and
  • establish NEO impact emergency procedures and action protocols

“The nation already has significant scientific, technical and operation capabilities that are relevant to asteroid impact prevention,” said Lindley Johnson, NASA’s planetary defense officer.

“Implementing the National Near-Earth Object Preparedness Strategy and Action Plan will greatly increase our nation’s readiness and work with international partners to effectively respond should a new potential asteroid impact be detected.”

NASA plans to continue using any planned or existing telescopes in space to spot NEOs, and hopes to invest in software that can help detect, track and analyse them more autonomously.


Tämän hetken tila tässä konfliktissa. Satelliittien kaappauksia.

An advanced hacking campaign originating in China has spent the past year infiltrating satellite operators, defense contractors, and telecoms companies in the US and Southeast Asia, researchers from Symantec said.

The attackers specifically looked for and infected computers one target used to monitor and control satellites, Symantec researchers reported in a blog post published Tuesday. A hack on a second target in the geospatial industry zeroed in on the software-development tools it used. The focus on the operational sides of the unnamed companies suggests that the hackers sought the ability not just to intercept but possibly to also alter communications traffic sent by businesses and consumers.

“Espionage is the group’s likely motive, but given its interest in compromising operational systems, it could also adopt a more aggressive, disruptive stance should it choose to do so,” Symantec researchers wrote.



Planning for humankind's first mission to a binary asteroid system has entered its next engineering phase. ESA's proposed Hera mission would also be Europe's contribution to an ambitious planetary defence experiment.

Named for the Greek goddess of marriage, Hera would fly to the Didymos pair of Near-Earth asteroids: the 780 m-diameter mountain-sized main body is orbited by a 160 m moon, informally called 'Didymoon', about the same size as the Great Pyramid of Giza.

The smaller Didymoon is Hera's main focus: the spacecraft would perform high-resolution visual, laser and radio science mapping of the moon, which will be the smallest asteroid visited so far, to build detailed maps of its surface and interior structure.

By the time Hera reaches Didymos, in 2026, Didymoon will have achieved historic significance: the first object in the Solar System to have its orbit shifted by human effort in a measurable way.

A NASA mission called the Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART, is due to collide with it in October 2022. The impact will lead to a change in the duration of Didymoon's orbit around the main body. Ground observatories all around the world will view the collision, but from a minimum distance of 11 million km away.

"Essential information will be missing following the DART impact - which is where Hera comes in," adds Ian.

"Hera's close-up survey will give us the mass of Didymoon, the shape of the crater, as well as physical and dynamical properties of Didymoon.

"This key data gathered by Hera will turn a grand but one-off experiment into a well-understood planetary defence technique: one that could in principle be repeated if we ever need to stop an incoming asteroid."

The traditional method of estimating the mass of a planetary body is to measure its gravitational pull on a spacecraft. That is not workable within the Didymos system: Didymoon's gravitational field would be swamped by that of its larger partner.

Instead, Hera imagery will be used to track key landmarks on the surface on the bigger body, 'Didymain', such as boulders or craters. By measuring the 'wobble' Didymoon causes its parent, relative to the common centre of gravity of the overall two-body system, its mass could be determined with an accuracy over 90%.

Hera will also measure the crater left by DART to a resolution of 10 cm, accomplished through a series of daring flybys, giving insight into the surface characteristics and internal composition of the asteroid.

"Hera benefits from more than five years of work put into ESA's former Asteroid Impact Mission," comments Ian.

"Its main instrument is a replica of an asteroid imager already flying in space - the Framing Camera used by NASA's Dawn mission as it surveys Ceres, which is provided by the German Aerospace Center, DLR.

"It would also carry a 'laser radar' lidar for surface ranging, as well as a hyperspectral imager to characterise surface properties. In addition, Hera will deploy Europe's first deep space CubeSats to gather additional science as well as test advanced multi-spacecraft intersatellite links."

NASA's DART mission meanwhile has passed its preliminary design review and is about to enter its 'Phase C' detailed design stage.


Joo...militarisointiapa hyvinkin... Ihan rauhansatelliitteja sinne on tähän asti noussut, ainakin rauhanvaltioista...

Erillinen Space Force tekisi itse asiassa avaruuden sotilaskäytöstä USA:n osalta läpinäkyvämpää - tuolloinhan kapasiteetit menisivät selkeästi yhdestä USSF budjetista eikä niinkään eri puolustushaarojen, ennen kaikkea USAF:n alta.

Toki tämä ei poista sitä ongelmaa, että Venäjän ja Kiinan sotilasavaruusohjelmat ovat pitkälti läpinäkymättömiä. Mutta ehkäpä jo se, että puhutaan asioista niiden oikealla nimellä on jo edistysaskel.


Kadonneet triljoonat (2.3 -> 6.3 -> 21 T) ja salainen avaruusohjelma

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