Merisodan historiasta

fulcrum

Ylipäällikkö
Olihan Saksalaisilla Graf Zeppeliinin lisäksi Hipper-luokan raskas risteilijä Seydlitz joka kesken rakennustöiden päätettiin muuttaa lentotukialukseksi. Alus sai uuden nimen Weser.
Lentokalustona olisi ollut 10 navalisoitua Bf 109 hävittäjää sekä 10 Ju-87 syöksypommittajaa. Alus ei ehtinyt valmistua sodan aikana tähänkään rooliin.

http://www.navypedia.org/ships/germany/ger_cv_seydlitz.htm
Graf Zeppelinille oli rakenteilla myös sisaralus, "Tukialus B". Sen runkoa ehdittiin rakentaa jonkun matkaa, mutta 1940 laivasto perui tilauksen ja runko romutettiin. On arveltu että laivan nimeksi olisi tullut Peter Strasser.
"Tukialus B":n perinnöksi jäi kuitenkin katapultti- ja pysäytysjärjestelmät. Ne myytiin Italiaan joka käytti ne omassa tukialusprojektissaan, Aquilassa.
Aquila oli entinen linjalaiva SS Roma, joka päätettiin vuonna 1940 muuttaa tukialukseksi . Projekti oli siis samantapainen kuin japanilaisten Hiyo-luokan tukialukset, paitsi kunnianhimoisempi koska siihen asennettiin uusi koneisto joka olisi antanut sille 30 solmun nopeuden - riittävä pysymään Littorio-luokan taistelulaivojen mukana. Myöhäisestä startista huolimatta Aquila oli lähempänä käyttövalmiutta kuin Graf Zeppelin, Italian aselevon aikoihin se oli valmistautumassa koeajoihin. Legendaarinen La Decima upotti sen satama-altaaseen mutta se nostettiin sodan jälkeen ja laivasto mietti sen käyttöönottoa. 1951 ajatus kuitenkin romutettiin lopullisesti ja seuraavana vuonna itse laivakin.


Italialla oli myös toinen tukialusprojekti, Sparviero. Sekin oli muutettu linjalaivasta mutta muunnostyö oli kevyempi kuin Aquilassa ja Sparviero olisi ollut liian hidas toimimaan laivaston mukana. Se olisi siis ollut lähinnä iso saattotukialus. Työtä tehtiin pienellä prioriteetilla eikä se ehtinyt koskaan kovin pitkälle.
 

John Hilly

Kenraali
Minulle täysin uusi tieto, että Vietkong upotti USNS Cardin, Toisen Maailmansodan tukialusveteraanin vuonna 1964.

Viet Cong Commandos Sank an American Aircraft Carrier
U.S. salvage crews raised the ship in 17 days


WIB sea July 23, 2017 Paul Richard Huard

U.S. Navy32 Vietnam3
It was shortly after midnight when two Viet Cong commandos emerged from a sewer tunnel that emptied into Saigon Port, each man carrying nearly 90 pounds of high explosives and the components needed to make two time bombs.

Their target was the largest American ship in port, USNS Card. An escort carrier that saw distinguished service as a submarine-hunter in the North Atlantic during World War II, during the early morning hours of May 2, 1964, Card was part of U.S. Military Sealift Command.

The ship supported an escalating military commitment of the South Vietnamese government that occurred well before the Tonkin Gulf Incident. Since 1961, Card had transported both fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters to the beleaguered nation as well as the U.S. pilots and support crews need to operate them.

The commandos swam toward Card, where they spent about an hour in the water attaching the charges just above the waterline near the bilge and the engine compartment on the ship’s starboard side. They set the timers and quickly swam away.

The charges exploded. Five civilian crewmen on board Card died, the explosion tore a huge hole in the engine-room compartment and a proud ship that had survived German U-boat attacks was on her way to the bottom — the last aircraft carrier in U.S. military history to date sunk by enemy action.


Above — USNS ‘Card’ in Saigon Port after the attack. At top — ‘Card’ in 1944. U.S. Navy photos


The sinking of the Card was stunning victory for the Viet Cong, yet little remembered today. It illustrated how vulnerable naval vessels can be even when faced with a low-tech enemy … and how difficult maintaining port security can be in a war with no real front.

But it also demonstrated how resilient American naval forces are. In 17 days, salvage crews raised Card out of nearly 50 feet of water, and six months later the ship returned to service for another six years.

Not surprisingly, North Vietnam celebrated the sinking of Card, considering it a propaganda victory of the first rank. The U.S. government refused to even acknowledge the vessel’s sinking, telling the public the carrier had only been damaged.

The North Vietnamese government even commemorated the event by portraying the operation on a 1964 postage stamp.

Naval vessels often have a mystique about them — they look formidable, bristle with weapons and aircraft, and have the ability to project a nation’s power anywhere on the planet. In particular, aircraft carriers are the symbol of a nation possessing “great power” status.

But they are vulnerable to attack. For example, there are reasons why even aircraft carriers have numerous escort vessels — destroyers, guided-missile cruisers, even submarines — to protect a carrier as well as engage the enemy.

We shouldn’t be too surprised when an enemy takes out a naval vessel in combat, even if it is a commando with a time bomb, James Holmes, a naval historian and analyst who teaches at the U.S. Naval War College, told War Is Boring.

“We shouldn’t get carried away with thinking of warships as ‘castles of steel,’ or latter-day dreadnoughts, or whatever,” Holmes said. “A castle is a fortification whose walls can take enormous punishment, whereas most modern warships have thin sides — the nuclear-powered carrier being an honorable exception. So a guy with a charge can do a lot of damage.”

Holmes said the sinking of Card “provided a preview” of the attack on the USS Cole in 2000 — a textbook case of a low-tech assault taking out a prime example of U.S. naval might.

Damage to USS ‘Cole’ after an Al Qaeda attack in 2000. U.S. Navy photo
Al Qaeda operatives mounted a suicide attack against Cole, a guided-missile destroyer, using a small boat packed with explosives that targeted the American ship while she was docked in Aden harbor. The blast tore a huge hole in the vessel, killing 17 sailors and injuring 39 — the deadliest attack on a U.S. Navy ship in recent history.

The blast from the explosion reached Cole’s galley, killing and wounding many there as sailors were lining up for lunch. Investigators later said they did not consider the timing of the attack a coincidence.

Fifty years ago, penetrating harbor security was a major concern as well for the perpetrators of the attack on Card.

Lam Son Nao, 79, the leader of the Viet Cong commandos, was a maintenance worker at the port at the time of the attack. He used his job as cover while he gathered intelligence, hid explosives and planned the mission.

Despite patrol boats filled with harbor police, Nao and his companion were able to mount their operation because of careful planning and the corruption of Saigon law enforcement.

“For the Card mission, my fellow operative and I pretended to be fishermen,” Nao said in an April 22, 2015 interview with Vietnamese News Service. “When our boat reached Nha Rong Wharf, the police chased us to the bank of the Thu Thiem Peninsula. To avoid having my boat inspected, we pushed the boat to a swamp, so that the police boat could not reach it.”

Nao told the harbor police that he wanted to shop at a market on a nearby island, offering to share part of the clothing and radios he planned to buy there. Then, he gave the police a generous bribe — and they let Nao go his way.

The aftermath of the attack on the Card rallied American rescue and salvage crews to deal with a severe crisis. The American brass and Pres. Lyndon Johnson wanted to keep the results of the attack as quiet as possible.

However, raising Card would be a major salvage operation.

Five Navy divers investigated damage to Card. One said he found the remains of a U.S.-made demolitions pack — evidence that the Viet Cong might have used stolen American military munitions.

In the meantime, the Navy sent the salvage vessel USS Reclaimer and the tug USS Tawakoni to Saigon Port to begin pumping water out of the sunken vessel. Despite poor diving conditions and numerous equipment malfunctions, salvage crews raised Card in a little more than two weeks.


Soon, both Reclaimer and Tawakoni towed Card out of Saigon harbor on their way to the U.S. Navy port of Subic Bay in the Philippines for repairs.

Naval vessels are very flexible ships capable of recuperating from serious battle damage. Apparently, Card was no exception — ships are often “re-purposed” in the U.S. Navy and enjoy long lives in service, Holmes said.

“The carrier Midway went from being a World War II carrier to a modern supercarrier over the course of her life, which reached into the 1990s,” he said. “That philosophy — deliberately build ships to allow for easy changes and upgrades over a long life — is making a comeback.”

Even Cole survived her attackers. After 14 months of repair, Cole departed dry-dock on April 19, 2002, and returned to her homeport of Norfolk, Virginia.

The ship deployed again in 2003. Cole remains in operation with the Sixth Fleet. Card decommissioned in 1970.
http://warisboring.com/viet-cong-commandos-sank-an-american-aircraft-carrier/
 

Panssari Salama

Ylipäällikkö
USS Indianapolis paikannettu Tyynellä merellä. Laivan uppoaminen oli tragedia etenkin, kun tieto siitä saatiin käytännössä vasta, kun elonjääneitä löytyi merestä neljä päivää tapahtuneen jälkeen.

 

StepanRudanskij

Kenraali
Lahjoittaja
USS Indianapolis paikannettu Tyynellä merellä. Laivan uppoaminen oli tragedia etenkin, kun tieto siitä saatiin käytännössä vasta, kun elonjääneitä löytyi merestä neljä päivää tapahtuneen jälkeen.

Tämä on osa amerikkalaisten 'kollektiivista tietoisuutta'. Vaikkapa Jaws/Tappajahai.
 

miheikki

Ylipäällikkö
Lahjoittaja
facebook kirjoitti:
TÄNÄÄN HISTORIASSA

Peral niminen espanjalainen sukellusvene oli ensimmäinen moderni sukellusvene. Se teki neitsytmatkansa 8. syyskuuta 1888.

Nimen Peral sukellusvene sai keksijältään ja rakentajaltaan herra Peralta. Vene oli sähkökäyttöinen. Sen tilasi Espanjan Laivasto ja siksi siihen tuli myös yksi torpedoputki. Kaksi torpedoa oli kyydissä. Veneessä oli alkeellinen ilmapuhdistusjärjestelmäkin. Vedenalla vauhtia saatiin 3 solmua. Toiintasäde vaan oli hyvin lyhyt.

Kesäkuussa tehtiin onnistunut koelaukaus ja Peral onnistui täysin sukelluksista ampumaan torpedon. Myös veneelle kehitetty vedenalainen sukellusjärjestelmä navigaatiolaitteineen toimi hienosti.

Espanjan Laivaston konservatiivinen siipi kuitenkin onnistui pysäyttämään kakhden vuoden menestyksekkäät kokeilut ja näin kehitys jäi siihen. Mutta ei kaikki unohtaneet näitä saavutuksia. Saksan Laivasto jatkoi siitä mihin espanjalaiset lopetti.

Peral on onnistuttu säilyttämään monen vaikeuksien jälkeenkin ja se on tänäpäivänä esillä Cartagenan Merimuseossa.


 

miheikki

Ylipäällikkö
Lahjoittaja
https://www.warhistoryonline.com/war-articles/barbary-pirates-white-slavery.html
Barbary Pirates and White Slavery
Jul 8, 2018 Carlin Irwin



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The term “Barbary’ is an adjective that refers to the inhabitants of the coastal regions of North Africa. The ethnic group indigenous to this region are commonly known as Berbers. During the times of the Roman and Greek empires, people who spoke different languages were considered barbarians.
The definition of a Barbarian is as follows, a member of a community or tribe not belonging to one of the great civilizations (Greek, Roman, Christian).
To the Greeks and Romans, those of different ethnicities and cultures spoke gibberish that sounded like they were saying “bar bar bar” when they spoke. In a nutshell, to English speakers, this is like calling a person who speaks another language “Blahrians” because their language sounds like “blah blah blah” and we don’t understand it. In the 7th century, the Arabs introduced their new religion, Islam, and the Arabic language to Northern Africa.

A Barbary pirate, Pier Francesco Mola 1650
They also used the word “Berber” (the Arabian variant of Barbarian) to refer to those who were not of their culture. The term “Turk” was often used to describe the ethnicity of these pirates. However, this was a misnomer, Turks were from Turkey. During the Barbary raids, few westerners understood the difference between an Ottoman Turk, a Berber, and an Arab.
The term Barbary stuck when Arab invaders conquered various North African territories in the 7th century. Consequently, European cartographers would name this area the Barbary Coast or “Barbaria.” This area would become more and more distinguished from the rest of the Arab world from the beginning to the end of the Ottoman Era. The Ottomans relied on the inhabitants in this area for diplomacy and raiding after losing control of the Mediterranean.
A 17th-century map by the Dutch cartographer Jan Janssonius showing the Barbary Coast, here “Barbaria”
The Battle of Lepanto in 1571, a key battle in the Mediterranean, was one of the largest naval warfare battles of that time. It involved the Holy League (Spain, France, and Italy) and the Ottomans. After the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, which ended with a European victory, the Ottomans control of the Mediterranean started to wane.
In the battlefield, as a result, the Ottoman territories on the Barbary Coast became vassal states. These states had previously relied on the Ottomans for naval power. Due to the Ottomans declining power, the Barbary states had to hire corsairs or pirates for naval power.
The Battle of Lepanto
These corsairs were pirates in Europe’s eyes but privateers in the eyes of the Barbary states. The Barbary states make up modern-day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. All of these states appointed leaders to rule these Ottoman territories. These leaders would then fund the corsairs’ raiding missions. The ports that the Barbary states depended on most were Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis.

The Barbary pirates did not only raid for booty at sea, they raided white Christian slaves in European territory, too. Previously, The inhabitants of the Maghreb (another term for North Africa) were referred to as the “Moors” or “Saracens.” These Islamic Moorish invaders conquered Christian Spain and would rule it from 711 to 1492.
Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza (1538)
On the 2nd January 1492, the Moors were finally expelled from Spain after continuous battles of Reconquista. Consequently, many of the Moors returned to the Barbary states and continued maritime piracy and slavery. At first, in the fifteenth century, the Barbary pirates sold slaves via Ottoman suzerainty.
They were used as sex and labor slaves. The attractive women and young children were put into forced prostitution and the men were put into labor. Slave markets would span across the Middle East, making them available to members of local elites, who were readily able to buy them and sell them.
The Barbary pirates frequently attacked Corsica, resulting in many Genoese towers being erected. Photo: Tanos / CC-BY-SA 2.0
The famous Miguel de Cervantes, the author of Don Quixote, was captured by the Barbary corsairs and brought to Algiers. He was a slave for five years until his rich family paid his ransom. This was also the case for other white slaves. Ransom funds were generally raised by rich or middle-class families or local church groups.
The trade in slaves/captives became a huge profit as Europeans would have to buy their people back from slavery. These pirates raided villages in Spain, France, Italy, England, and sometimes even in Scandinavia. After centuries of raiding villages for booty and slaves, Barbary piracy would peak in the 19th century.
An action between an English ship and vessels of the Barbary Corsairs
Between 1530 and 1780, it is estimated that 1,520,000 Europeans had been enslaved. In comparison, however, the Europeans enslaved 12 million Africans. It took many battles before the Europeans and Americans fully regained control of the Mediterranean. Action was needed and taken, to rescue and protect citizens of Europe.
The Barbary Wars were a series of wars fought between the Ottoman Corsairs (Barbary privateers) and the newly formed United States of America. In the 1780s, Barbary privateers routinely attacked American commercial ships, taking booty and holding captives. That same decade, due to the end of the American Revolution, Congress disbanded the Continental Navy and auctioned off the surviving ships.
USS Enterprise fighting the Tripolitan polacca Tripoli by William Bainbridge Hoff, 1878
This left America with no navy. As a result, in 1786, the United States government paid tribute to the governments of the Barbary Coast to leave American merchants alone. On March 20th, 1794, President George Washington requested the creation of the United States Navy. Consequently, Congress created a permanent standing navy with six heavy frigates to stop the attacks and the capturing of Americans.
In 1801, the newly inaugurated president Thomas Jefferson refused to pay tribute. Around this time, the tributes and the attacks had become a financial burden on the United States. On May 13, 1801, a naval fleet was sent to the waters off the Barbary Coast. With the aid of Sweden and The Kingdom of Sicily, they attacked Tripoli. In response, Tripoli declared war on the United States. The Barbary Coast War was also known as the Tripolitan War or The first Barbary War.
Burning of USS Philadelphia
Under Commodores Richard Dale and Edward Preble, the pirates were blockaded and ultimately defeated. By 1805, the marines landed in Tripoli. They eventually took the fort under General William Eaton who was fluent in Arabic. By the end of the war in 1805, a treaty was signed and a ransom was paid to free the American sailors who had been put into slavery.
For almost ten years, Americans had the freedom to sail the waters of the Mediterranean without fear.
The Second Barbary War was a short war for the US that occurred after the War of 1812 and the Napoleonic Wars. The west had to deal with the piracy problem again after previous treaties failed. In 1815, The United States had a 2 day battle against Algeria. Outnumbered by the American’s advanced ships, the Algerians agreed to leave America alone once and for all.
Bombardment of Algiers, a painting of the action by Thomas Luny
The Europeans, on the other hand, would continue to have issues with the Barbary states for years to come. In 1816, the British underwent a diplomatic voyage to the Deys (the elected rulers of the Barbary states) to negotiate a deal to stop the piracy and to free European Christian slaves. After many negotiations, the Deys couldn’t come to terms with The United Kingdom. In response, The United Kingdom and The Netherlands launched a mission to punish the North Africans for the practice of slavery.
On August 27, 1816, an Anglo-Dutch fleet bombarded the city of Algiers, killing between 5000 – 7000 people. As a result, the Regency of Algiers surrendered 3000 slaves. This was the last of the Barbary Corsairs, but not the Ottomans.
French bombardment of Algiers by Admiral Dupperé, 13 June 1830
The French, who invaded Algeria in 1830 and ruled there for 132 years, and the combination of the Arabian, British, and Russian military victories, eventually drove the Ottomans back into Turkey. As a result of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War One, the Caliphate was abolished and the modern Republic of Turkey was created in 1918.
In the lands of the Barbary coast on the other hand, with the end of European and Ottoman colonization in North Africa, civil unrest continues in the area to this day.
 

Raveni

Ylipäällikkö
Tässä vanhassa suomi filmissä on useampikin paatti joita en tunnista niin osaako joku kertoilla aluksista enemmän?
 

Old Boy

Ylipäällikkö
useampikin paatti joita en tunnista
Alussa esiintyy kotimaassa valmistettu puinen Taisto-luokan torpedovene Taisto 6, joka nykyisin löytyy museoituna Forum Marinumista.
0:05 saman aluksen 40 mm veivi-Bofors
0:13 ollaan vaihdettu alusta ja ammutaan 75 mm Canet-tykillä ilmeisesti miinalaiva Ruotsinsalmella
0:27 ammutaan jälleen Taisto 6:n aseilla, tällä kertaa 20 mm Madsen tykillä, joka itse asiassa oli mittakaavassa suurennettu pikakivääri. Jousitettamaton tähtäinlaite lyö ikävästi ampujan silmän ympärille;
tuloksena musta silmä
0:40 välillä käydään vilkaisemassa Boforsin suuntaamista ja sen jälkeen ammutaan raivauksessa pintaan noussut (kiinnitysvaijeri katkaistu) miina upoksiin Madsenilla
0:50 väliin leikattu ilmeisesti sodanaikaisen torpedon latausta sillä torpedoveneethan kiellettiin rauhansopimuksessa
1:00 vilahtaa miinalaiva Ruotsinsalmen keula ja myöhemmin sama Taisto kurvailee miinalaivan perässä
1:46 pyötäytetään syvyyspommi laidan yli, koska jokunen sekunti aikaisemmin oli leikattu pätkä sodanaikaisen sukellusveneestä. Eloikuvan valmistumisen aikaan 1954 meillä ei niitä enää ollut

Sodan jälkeen käytettiin ilmeisesti vanhoja lomapukuja loppuun ammunnoissa. Huomaa erot sodanaikaiseen pukeutumiseen torpedon latauskuvissa
Arvoitukseksi jäi torpedo, joka näyttää lähtevän miinalaiva Ruotsinsalmeksi olettamaltani alukselta. Onko ainoastaan joku elokuvatrikki, sillä torpedoputkia ei tässä aluksessa ollut?
 

baikal

Ylipäällikkö
Lahjoittaja
Minulle täysin uusi tieto, että Vietkong upotti USNS Cardin, Toisen Maailmansodan tukialusveteraanin vuonna 1964.
Joskus on väitetty, että vietnamilaisilla olisi ollut mahdollisuus -65 upottaa kaksi -suurta- amerikkalaislaivaa, mutta venäläiset kehottivat harkitsemaan sitä vakavasti uudelleen.
 

Raveni

Ylipäällikkö
Alussa esiintyy kotimaassa valmistettu puinen Taisto-luokan torpedovene Taisto 6, joka nykyisin löytyy museoituna Forum Marinumista.
0:05 saman aluksen 40 mm veivi-Bofors
0:13 ollaan vaihdettu alusta ja ammutaan 75 mm Canet-tykillä ilmeisesti miinalaiva Ruotsinsalmella
0:27 ammutaan jälleen Taisto 6:n aseilla, tällä kertaa 20 mm Madsen tykillä, joka itse asiassa oli mittakaavassa suurennettu pikakivääri. Jousitettamaton tähtäinlaite lyö ikävästi ampujan silmän ympärille;
tuloksena musta silmä
0:40 välillä käydään vilkaisemassa Boforsin suuntaamista ja sen jälkeen ammutaan raivauksessa pintaan noussut (kiinnitysvaijeri katkaistu) miina upoksiin Madsenilla
0:50 väliin leikattu ilmeisesti sodanaikaisen torpedon latausta sillä torpedoveneethan kiellettiin rauhansopimuksessa
1:00 vilahtaa miinalaiva Ruotsinsalmen keula ja myöhemmin sama Taisto kurvailee miinalaivan perässä
1:46 pyötäytetään syvyyspommi laidan yli, koska jokunen sekunti aikaisemmin oli leikattu pätkä sodanaikaisen sukellusveneestä. Eloikuvan valmistumisen aikaan 1954 meillä ei niitä enää ollut

Sodan jälkeen käytettiin ilmeisesti vanhoja lomapukuja loppuun ammunnoissa. Huomaa erot sodanaikaiseen pukeutumiseen torpedon latauskuvissa
Arvoitukseksi jäi torpedo, joka näyttää lähtevän miinalaiva Ruotsinsalmeksi olettamaltani alukselta. Onko ainoastaan joku elokuvatrikki, sillä torpedoputkia ei tässä aluksessa ollut?
Aivan loistava tieto paketti :) Kiitokset.
 
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